Creating Time-Series Datasets

Deep Lake is a powerful tool for easily storing and sharing time-series datasets with your team.

How to use Deep Lake to store time-series data

This tutorial is also available as a Colab Notebook

Deep Lake is intuitive format for storing large time-series datasets and it offers compression for reducing storage costs. This tutorial demonstrates how to convert a time-series data to Deep Lake format and load the data for plotting.

Create the Deep Lake Dataset

The first step is to download the small dataset below called sensor data.
This is a subset of a dataset available on kaggle, and it contains the iPhone x,y,z acceleration for 24 users (subjects) under conditions of walking and jogging. The dataset has the folder structure below. subjects_info.csv contains metadata such as height, weight, etc. for each subject, and the sub_n.csv files contains the time-series acceleration data for the nth subject.
Now that you have the data, let's create a Deep Lake Dataset in the ./sensor_data_deeplake folder by running:
import deeplake
import pandas as pd
import os
from tqdm import tqdm
import numpy as np
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
ds = deeplake.empty('./sensor_data_deeplake') # Create the dataset locally
Next, let's specify the folder path containing the existing dataset, load the subjects metadata to a Pandas DataFrame, and create a list of all of the time-series files that should be converted to Deep Lake format.
dataset_path= './sensor_data'
subjects_info = pd.read_csv(os.path.join(dataset_path, 'subjects_info.csv'))
fns_series = []
for dirpath, dirnames, filenames in os.walk(os.path.join(dataset_path, 'motion_data')):
for filename in filenames:
fns_series .append(os.path.join(dirpath, filename))
Next, let's create the tensors and add relevant metadata, such as the dataset source, the tensor units, and other information. We leverage groups to separate out the primary acceleration data from other user data such as the weight and height of the subjects.
with ds:
#Update dataset metadata = '',
notes = 'This is a small subset of the data in the source link')
#Create tensors. Setting chunk_compression is optional and it defaults to None
ds.create_tensor('acceleration_x', chunk_compression = 'lz4')
ds.create_tensor('acceleration_y', chunk_compression = 'lz4')
# Save the sampling rate as tensor metadata. Alternatively,
# you could also create a 'time' tensor. = 0.1) = 0.1)
# Encode activity as text
ds.create_tensor('activity', htype = 'text')
# Encode 'activity' as numeric labels and convert to text via class_names
# ds.create_tensor('activity', htype = 'class_label', class_names = ['xyz'])
# Save the units of weight as tensor metadata = 'kg') = 'cm')
Finally, let's iterate through all the time-series data and populate the tensors in the Deep Lake dataset.
with ds:
# Iterate through the time series and append data
for fn in tqdm(fns_series):
# Read the data in the time series
df_data = pd.read_csv(fn)
# Parse the 'activity' from the file name
activity = os.path.basename(os.path.dirname(fn))
# Parse the subject code from the filename and pull the subject info from 'subjects_info'
subject_code = int(os.path.splitext(os.path.basename(fn))[0].split('_')[1])
subject_info = subjects_info[subjects_info['code']==subject_code]
# Append data to tensors

Inspect the Deep Lake Dataset

Let's check out the first sample from this dataset and plot the acceleration time-series.
It is noteworthy that the Deep Lake dataset takes 36% less memory than the original dataset due to lz4 chunk compression for the acceleration tensors.
s_ind = 0 # Plot the first time series
t_ind = 100 # Plot the first 100 indices in the time series
#Plot the x acceleration
x_data = ds.acceleration_x[s_ind].numpy()[:t_ind]
sampling_rate_x =
plt.plot(np.arange(0, x_data.size)*sampling_rate_x, x_data, label='acceleration_x')
#Plot the y acceleration
y_data = ds.acceleration_y[s_ind].numpy()[:t_ind]
sampling_rate_y =
plt.plot(np.arange(0, y_data.size)*sampling_rate_y, y_data, label='acceleration_y')
plt.xlabel('time [s]', fontweight = 'bold')
plt.ylabel('acceleration [g]', fontweight = 'bold')
plt.title('Weight: {} {}, Height: {} {}'.format(ds.subjects_info.weight[s_ind].numpy()[0],,
fontweight = 'bold')
plt.xlim([0, 10])
plt.gcf().set_size_inches(8, 5)
Congrats! You just converted a time-series dataset to Deep Lake format! 🎉